General Obligations for Authors
- An author's primary obligation is to present a concise, accurate account of the research performed, as well as an objective discussion of its significance.
- A paper should contain sufficient detail and references to public sources of information to permit the author's peers to repeat the work.
- An author should cite those publications that have been influential in determining the nature of the reported work and that will quickly guide the reader to the initial work essential for understanding the present investigation. Information obtained privately, as in conversation, correspondence, or discussion with third parties, should not be used or reported in the author's work without explicit permission from the investigator with whom the information originated. Information obtained in the course of confidential services, such as refereeing manuscripts or grant applications, should be treated similarly.
- Fragmentation of research papers should be avoided. A scientist who has done extensive work on a system or group of related systems should organize publication so that each paper gives a complete account of a particular aspect of the general study.
- It is inappropriate for an author to submit manuscripts describing essentially the same research to more than one journal of primary publication.
- A criticism of a published paper may sometimes be justified; however, in no case is personal criticism considered to be appropriate.
- To protect the integrity of authorship, only persons who have significantly contributed to the research and paper preparation should be listed as authors. The corresponding author attests to the fact that any others named as authors have seen the final version of the paper and have agreed to its submission for publication. Deceased persons who meet the criterion for co-authorship should be included, with a footnote reporting date of death. No fictitious names should be listed as authors or co-authors. The author who submits a manuscript for publication accepts the responsibility of having included as co-authors all persons that are appropriate and none that are inappropriate.